Saturday, January 31, 2009

Research and More

Well R and I have spent the last few days making a way to build our research so that we can figure out where it all goes. It seems like its going well but has taken a little bit of my time up the last few days for any posting or further research into dreaming and such.

I have been reading a recent book I purchased off of Amazon.com called " The Dream Durgstore" by J. Allan Hobson. I must say that after reading about a quarter of the book now, I may have been a little hasty in attacking his support of the activation-synthesis hypothesis. First of all Allen Hobson didn't propose the hypothesis himself, it was first proposed in 1977 by Robert McCarley as an option to replace Freud's theory of disguise-censorship which we know of so well. The theory of activation synthesis seems to still have a few weak points that I will focus more on in a later post as well as a strong hatred for Freud's work in psychoanalysis of dreams.

Until the next post, everyone have a great rest of the weekend!

-L

Research and More

Well R and I have spent the last few days making a way to build our research so that we can figure out where it all goes. It seems like its going well but has taken a little bit of my time up the last few days for any posting or further research into dreaming and such.

I have been reading a recent book I purchased off of Amazon.com called " The Dream Durgstore" by J. Allan Hobson. I must say that after reading about a quarter of the book now, I may have been a little hasty in attacking his support of the activation-synthesis hypothesis. First of all Allen Hobson didn't propose the hypothesis himself, it was first proposed in 1977 by Robert McCarley as an option to replace Freud's theory of disguise-censorship which we know of so well. The theory of activation synthesis seems to still have a few weak points that I will focus more on in a later post as well as a strong hatred for Freud's work in psychoanalysis of dreams.

Until the next post, everyone have a great rest of the weekend!

-L

Research and More

Well R and I have spent the last few days making a way to build our research so that we can figure out where it all goes. It seems like its going well but has taken a little bit of my time up the last few days for any posting or further research into dreaming and such.

I have been reading a recent book I purchased off of Amazon.com called " The Dream Durgstore" by J. Allan Hobson. I must say that after reading about a quarter of the book now, I may have been a little hasty in attacking his support of the activation-synthesis hypothesis. First of all Allen Hobson didn't propose the hypothesis himself, it was first proposed in 1977 by Robert McCarley as an option to replace Freud's theory of disguise-censorship which we know of so well. The theory of activation synthesis seems to still have a few weak points that I will focus more on in a later post as well as a strong hatred for Freud's work in psychoanalysis of dreams.

Until the next post, everyone have a great rest of the weekend!

-L

Research and More

Well R and I have spent the last few days making a way to build our research so that we can figure out where it all goes. It seems like its going well but has taken a little bit of my time up the last few days for any posting or further research into dreaming and such.

I have been reading a recent book I purchased off of Amazon.com called " The Dream Durgstore" by J. Allan Hobson. I must say that after reading about a quarter of the book now, I may have been a little hasty in attacking his support of the activation-synthesis hypothesis. First of all Allen Hobson didn't propose the hypothesis himself, it was first proposed in 1977 by Robert McCarley as an option to replace Freud's theory of disguise-censorship which we know of so well. The theory of activation synthesis seems to still have a few weak points that I will focus more on in a later post as well as a strong hatred for Freud's work in psychoanalysis of dreams.

Until the next post, everyone have a great rest of the weekend!

-L

Friday, January 30, 2009

Total Isolation Video

Ever wanted to see what happens when people spend inordinate amounts of time in a darkened room? Check out this great BBC Horizon special and find out.




Maybe those Taoist darkrooms are really on to something.


Good Luck and Happy Dreaming

-R

Total Isolation Video

Ever wanted to see what happens when people spend inordinate amounts of time in a darkened room? Check out this great BBC Horizon special and find out.




Maybe those Taoist darkrooms are really on to something.


Good Luck and Happy Dreaming

-R

Total Isolation Video

Ever wanted to see what happens when people spend inordinate amounts of time in a darkened room? Check out this great BBC Horizon special and find out.




Maybe those Taoist darkrooms are really on to something.


Good Luck and Happy Dreaming

-R

Total Isolation Video

Ever wanted to see what happens when people spend inordinate amounts of time in a darkened room? Check out this great BBC Horizon special and find out.




Maybe those Taoist darkrooms are really on to something.


Good Luck and Happy Dreaming

-R

Wednesday, January 28, 2009

Question For the Week: Does depression affect your REM sleep or dreams?

Question:
I've been feeling depressed since the beginning of summer 2008 and it's been getting worse recently and I've noticed I'm recalling my dreams more often. I think when my depression was really bad a few months ago I recalled several of my dreams, also.

Do you know or have you heard anything about depression and dreams being related?


Answer:
Dreams and depression are thought to be very much correlated. Research shows that many times depression reacts to either serotonin levels in the brain or the receptors of serotonin. That is why many anti-depressant drugs either mimic serotonin or help produce more. Depression has shown by research to be caused sometimes by abnormal amount of serotonin in the brain along with other neurotransmitters that are also related to dreaming. Natural ant-depressants such as 5-HTP or Saint John’s Wort either are a precursor to serotonin or support the increase amount of serotonin in the brain.

Research shows that serotonin is a demodulator of the REM cycle in sleep. REM is where the majority of our dreams come from. If serotonin is not as abundant as it should be in the brain then you would have less deactivation of the REM allowing for more dreams but also less NREM (containing deep sleep) sleep stages. You may wake up and feel sleepy even though you slept eight hours or you could have problems remembering things during the day since serotonin plays a great role in memory.

If you want to possibly fix this problem I suggest you seek out the natural supplement Saint John’s Wort or if you want a prescription drug, talk to a doctor.


References:
Barrett, D., & McNamara, P. (2007). The New Science of Dreaming. Greenwood Publishing Group.
Hameroff, M. B. (Director). (2006). Dream Debate [Motion Picture].
Hobson, A. J. (2002). The Dream Drugstore: Chemically Altered States of Consciousness. MIT Press.
Wolf, F. A. (1995). The Dreaming Universe. Simon and Schuster.
Yuschak, T. (2006). Advanced Lucid Dreaming - The Power of Supplements. Lulu.com.



-L

Question For the Week: Does depression affect your REM sleep or dreams?

Question:
I've been feeling depressed since the beginning of summer 2008 and it's been getting worse recently and I've noticed I'm recalling my dreams more often. I think when my depression was really bad a few months ago I recalled several of my dreams, also.

Do you know or have you heard anything about depression and dreams being related?


Answer:
Dreams and depression are thought to be very much correlated. Research shows that many times depression reacts to either serotonin levels in the brain or the receptors of serotonin. That is why many anti-depressant drugs either mimic serotonin or help produce more. Depression has shown by research to be caused sometimes by abnormal amount of serotonin in the brain along with other neurotransmitters that are also related to dreaming. Natural ant-depressants such as 5-HTP or Saint John’s Wort either are a precursor to serotonin or support the increase amount of serotonin in the brain.

Research shows that serotonin is a demodulator of the REM cycle in sleep. REM is where the majority of our dreams come from. If serotonin is not as abundant as it should be in the brain then you would have less deactivation of the REM allowing for more dreams but also less NREM (containing deep sleep) sleep stages. You may wake up and feel sleepy even though you slept eight hours or you could have problems remembering things during the day since serotonin plays a great role in memory.

If you want to possibly fix this problem I suggest you seek out the natural supplement Saint John’s Wort or if you want a prescription drug, talk to a doctor.


References:
Barrett, D., & McNamara, P. (2007). The New Science of Dreaming. Greenwood Publishing Group.
Hameroff, M. B. (Director). (2006). Dream Debate [Motion Picture].
Hobson, A. J. (2002). The Dream Drugstore: Chemically Altered States of Consciousness. MIT Press.
Wolf, F. A. (1995). The Dreaming Universe. Simon and Schuster.
Yuschak, T. (2006). Advanced Lucid Dreaming - The Power of Supplements. Lulu.com.



-L

Question For the Week: Does depression affect your REM sleep or dreams?

Question:
I've been feeling depressed since the beginning of summer 2008 and it's been getting worse recently and I've noticed I'm recalling my dreams more often. I think when my depression was really bad a few months ago I recalled several of my dreams, also.

Do you know or have you heard anything about depression and dreams being related?


Answer:
Dreams and depression are thought to be very much correlated. Research shows that many times depression reacts to either serotonin levels in the brain or the receptors of serotonin. That is why many anti-depressant drugs either mimic serotonin or help produce more. Depression has shown by research to be caused sometimes by abnormal amount of serotonin in the brain along with other neurotransmitters that are also related to dreaming. Natural ant-depressants such as 5-HTP or Saint John’s Wort either are a precursor to serotonin or support the increase amount of serotonin in the brain.

Research shows that serotonin is a demodulator of the REM cycle in sleep. REM is where the majority of our dreams come from. If serotonin is not as abundant as it should be in the brain then you would have less deactivation of the REM allowing for more dreams but also less NREM (containing deep sleep) sleep stages. You may wake up and feel sleepy even though you slept eight hours or you could have problems remembering things during the day since serotonin plays a great role in memory.

If you want to possibly fix this problem I suggest you seek out the natural supplement Saint John’s Wort or if you want a prescription drug, talk to a doctor.


References:
Barrett, D., & McNamara, P. (2007). The New Science of Dreaming. Greenwood Publishing Group.
Hameroff, M. B. (Director). (2006). Dream Debate [Motion Picture].
Hobson, A. J. (2002). The Dream Drugstore: Chemically Altered States of Consciousness. MIT Press.
Wolf, F. A. (1995). The Dreaming Universe. Simon and Schuster.
Yuschak, T. (2006). Advanced Lucid Dreaming - The Power of Supplements. Lulu.com.



-L

Question For the Week: Does depression affect your REM sleep or dreams?

Question:
I've been feeling depressed since the beginning of summer 2008 and it's been getting worse recently and I've noticed I'm recalling my dreams more often. I think when my depression was really bad a few months ago I recalled several of my dreams, also.

Do you know or have you heard anything about depression and dreams being related?


Answer:
Dreams and depression are thought to be very much correlated. Research shows that many times depression reacts to either serotonin levels in the brain or the receptors of serotonin. That is why many anti-depressant drugs either mimic serotonin or help produce more. Depression has shown by research to be caused sometimes by abnormal amount of serotonin in the brain along with other neurotransmitters that are also related to dreaming. Natural ant-depressants such as 5-HTP or Saint John’s Wort either are a precursor to serotonin or support the increase amount of serotonin in the brain.

Research shows that serotonin is a demodulator of the REM cycle in sleep. REM is where the majority of our dreams come from. If serotonin is not as abundant as it should be in the brain then you would have less deactivation of the REM allowing for more dreams but also less NREM (containing deep sleep) sleep stages. You may wake up and feel sleepy even though you slept eight hours or you could have problems remembering things during the day since serotonin plays a great role in memory.

If you want to possibly fix this problem I suggest you seek out the natural supplement Saint John’s Wort or if you want a prescription drug, talk to a doctor.


References:
Barrett, D., & McNamara, P. (2007). The New Science of Dreaming. Greenwood Publishing Group.
Hameroff, M. B. (Director). (2006). Dream Debate [Motion Picture].
Hobson, A. J. (2002). The Dream Drugstore: Chemically Altered States of Consciousness. MIT Press.
Wolf, F. A. (1995). The Dreaming Universe. Simon and Schuster.
Yuschak, T. (2006). Advanced Lucid Dreaming - The Power of Supplements. Lulu.com.



-L

Monday, January 26, 2009

Peopled Darkness



Yesterday I received one of what has become one of my most favorite non-fiction books to date. It’s called “Peopled Darkness” and is written by J.D. Arthur who as an experienced user of LSD decided to try Salivia Divinorum and write down his experiences over the course of five years. Unlike most psychedelic users, Mr. Arthur documents his reports in a more scientific method that becomes an enjoyable read.

Much like DMT users, lucid dreamers, NT patients, and other examples of hallucinations that contain some type of encounter with “guides,” Salivia Divinorum (in Mr. Arthur’s case) shows are more focused less fearful way of encountering the possible subconscious. In his book Mr. Arthur describes experiences that are out of this world and seem free of suggested interoperation of the outside world as well as any type of dream like content experienced in normal dreaming. He does show correlation in descriptions of possible OBE (out of the body) lucid type dreaming as well as events experienced by many of Dr. Strassmen’s patients during his clinical tests in New Mexico.

If anything I highly suggest reading Mr. Arthurs book “Peopled Darkness” in better understanding the possible world experienced during dreaming and the possible world around us.

-L

Peopled Darkness



Yesterday I received one of what has become one of my most favorite non-fiction books to date. It’s called “Peopled Darkness” and is written by J.D. Arthur who as an experienced user of LSD decided to try Salivia Divinorum and write down his experiences over the course of five years. Unlike most psychedelic users, Mr. Arthur documents his reports in a more scientific method that becomes an enjoyable read.

Much like DMT users, lucid dreamers, NT patients, and other examples of hallucinations that contain some type of encounter with “guides,” Salivia Divinorum (in Mr. Arthur’s case) shows are more focused less fearful way of encountering the possible subconscious. In his book Mr. Arthur describes experiences that are out of this world and seem free of suggested interoperation of the outside world as well as any type of dream like content experienced in normal dreaming. He does show correlation in descriptions of possible OBE (out of the body) lucid type dreaming as well as events experienced by many of Dr. Strassmen’s patients during his clinical tests in New Mexico.

If anything I highly suggest reading Mr. Arthurs book “Peopled Darkness” in better understanding the possible world experienced during dreaming and the possible world around us.

-L

Peopled Darkness



Yesterday I received one of what has become one of my most favorite non-fiction books to date. It’s called “Peopled Darkness” and is written by J.D. Arthur who as an experienced user of LSD decided to try Salivia Divinorum and write down his experiences over the course of five years. Unlike most psychedelic users, Mr. Arthur documents his reports in a more scientific method that becomes an enjoyable read.

Much like DMT users, lucid dreamers, NT patients, and other examples of hallucinations that contain some type of encounter with “guides,” Salivia Divinorum (in Mr. Arthur’s case) shows are more focused less fearful way of encountering the possible subconscious. In his book Mr. Arthur describes experiences that are out of this world and seem free of suggested interoperation of the outside world as well as any type of dream like content experienced in normal dreaming. He does show correlation in descriptions of possible OBE (out of the body) lucid type dreaming as well as events experienced by many of Dr. Strassmen’s patients during his clinical tests in New Mexico.

If anything I highly suggest reading Mr. Arthurs book “Peopled Darkness” in better understanding the possible world experienced during dreaming and the possible world around us.

-L

Peopled Darkness



Yesterday I received one of what has become one of my most favorite non-fiction books to date. It’s called “Peopled Darkness” and is written by J.D. Arthur who as an experienced user of LSD decided to try Salivia Divinorum and write down his experiences over the course of five years. Unlike most psychedelic users, Mr. Arthur documents his reports in a more scientific method that becomes an enjoyable read.

Much like DMT users, lucid dreamers, NT patients, and other examples of hallucinations that contain some type of encounter with “guides,” Salivia Divinorum (in Mr. Arthur’s case) shows are more focused less fearful way of encountering the possible subconscious. In his book Mr. Arthur describes experiences that are out of this world and seem free of suggested interoperation of the outside world as well as any type of dream like content experienced in normal dreaming. He does show correlation in descriptions of possible OBE (out of the body) lucid type dreaming as well as events experienced by many of Dr. Strassmen’s patients during his clinical tests in New Mexico.

If anything I highly suggest reading Mr. Arthurs book “Peopled Darkness” in better understanding the possible world experienced during dreaming and the possible world around us.

-L

Lucid Dreaming: A Valid Explanation

Thanks to another great e-mail that I received from Scot Stride, I have obtained some useful documents written by Mr. Yuschak that were posted on the AdvancedLD website until the site went down. Links to these documents are posted at the end of this post.

In the e-mail from Mr. Stride, he also committed about his own hypothesis of why we lucid dream. Here is what he had to say:

The crux of lucid dreaming is the awakening of the aminergic system which allows the person to think rationally enough to recognize the mental hallucinations as dreams. Vividness and memory alone are not enough to overcome the "idiotic" state of the mind during REM dreaming. Unless the aminergic system is above a certain threshold of rational functioning, the dreamer can't become lucid. I'm beginning to conclude that the only supplements which hold promise are those that enhance the aminergic system (serotonin and norephinephrine). There is further benefit in raising the levels of brain Histamine, which is tricky because there are not that many supplements that can do it (e.g., L-Histidine). I've also concluded that increased cerebral blood flow is important. Aspirin is an indirect vasodilator by raising Nitrous Oxide (NO) levels. Niacin (Niacinamide) and L-Arginine also increase cerebral blood flow. This is important because the brain functions better and is more alert with better blood flow.

After reviewing his hypothesis for lucid dreaming it does have validity as it seems to have its foundation based on much of what Dr. Hobson research has concluded. According to Hobson’s research, the aminergic system is deactivated during a dream and “being thought as responsible for periodic discharge of norepinephrine and serotonin, into the brain (Wolf, 1995, p. 312).” If this is true than as talked about before in earlier posts, the memories of dreaming or lucid dreaming would not exists because of the absence of the important memory related neurotransmitter serotonin. An activation of the aminergic system would allow for the dreamer to remember his or her lucid experiences.

The real question that I find that I now ask myself is, how often does the average person lucid dream without remembering the experience? Being unable to remember these events myself has me wondering, why is our brain so actively trying to forget such dream events as well as the 25% of life the average person is spent sleeping? More research must be done in the area of lucid dreaming as well as REM and non-REM dreaming in order to conclude anything.

Pharmacological Induction of Lucid Dreams

LDS Tutorial #4

LDS Tutorial #3a

LDS Tutorial #2a

LDS Tutorial #1

9_HZ_bursts_correspond_to_lucidity

References:
Wolf, F. A. (1995). The Dreaming Universe. Simon and Schuster.

On a side note, it seems that anyone dealing with lucid dreaming still doesn’t know what happened to Mr. Yuschak as he seems not to be in contact with anyone.

-L

Lucid Dreaming: A Valid Explanation

Thanks to another great e-mail that I received from Scot Stride, I have obtained some useful documents written by Mr. Yuschak that were posted on the AdvancedLD website until the site went down. Links to these documents are posted at the end of this post.

In the e-mail from Mr. Stride, he also committed about his own hypothesis of why we lucid dream. Here is what he had to say:

The crux of lucid dreaming is the awakening of the aminergic system which allows the person to think rationally enough to recognize the mental hallucinations as dreams. Vividness and memory alone are not enough to overcome the "idiotic" state of the mind during REM dreaming. Unless the aminergic system is above a certain threshold of rational functioning, the dreamer can't become lucid. I'm beginning to conclude that the only supplements which hold promise are those that enhance the aminergic system (serotonin and norephinephrine). There is further benefit in raising the levels of brain Histamine, which is tricky because there are not that many supplements that can do it (e.g., L-Histidine). I've also concluded that increased cerebral blood flow is important. Aspirin is an indirect vasodilator by raising Nitrous Oxide (NO) levels. Niacin (Niacinamide) and L-Arginine also increase cerebral blood flow. This is important because the brain functions better and is more alert with better blood flow.

After reviewing his hypothesis for lucid dreaming it does have validity as it seems to have its foundation based on much of what Dr. Hobson research has concluded. According to Hobson’s research, the aminergic system is deactivated during a dream and “being thought as responsible for periodic discharge of norepinephrine and serotonin, into the brain (Wolf, 1995, p. 312).” If this is true than as talked about before in earlier posts, the memories of dreaming or lucid dreaming would not exists because of the absence of the important memory related neurotransmitter serotonin. An activation of the aminergic system would allow for the dreamer to remember his or her lucid experiences.

The real question that I find that I now ask myself is, how often does the average person lucid dream without remembering the experience? Being unable to remember these events myself has me wondering, why is our brain so actively trying to forget such dream events as well as the 25% of life the average person is spent sleeping? More research must be done in the area of lucid dreaming as well as REM and non-REM dreaming in order to conclude anything.

References:
Wolf, F. A. (1995). The Dreaming Universe. Simon and Schuster.

As promised here is the link for the .pdf files made by Mr. Yuschak:
http://www.searchmovement.com/sleepdocs/

On a side note, it seems that anyone dealing with lucid dreaming still doesn’t know what happened to Mr. Yuschak as he seems not to be in contact with anyone.

-L

Lucid Dreaming: A Valid Explanation

Thanks to another great e-mail that I received from Scot Stride, I have obtained some useful documents written by Mr. Yuschak that were posted on the AdvancedLD website until the site went down. Links to these documents are posted at the end of this post.

In the e-mail from Mr. Stride, he also committed about his own hypothesis of why we lucid dream. Here is what he had to say:

The crux of lucid dreaming is the awakening of the aminergic system which allows the person to think rationally enough to recognize the mental hallucinations as dreams. Vividness and memory alone are not enough to overcome the "idiotic" state of the mind during REM dreaming. Unless the aminergic system is above a certain threshold of rational functioning, the dreamer can't become lucid. I'm beginning to conclude that the only supplements which hold promise are those that enhance the aminergic system (serotonin and norephinephrine). There is further benefit in raising the levels of brain Histamine, which is tricky because there are not that many supplements that can do it (e.g., L-Histidine). I've also concluded that increased cerebral blood flow is important. Aspirin is an indirect vasodilator by raising Nitrous Oxide (NO) levels. Niacin (Niacinamide) and L-Arginine also increase cerebral blood flow. This is important because the brain functions better and is more alert with better blood flow.

After reviewing his hypothesis for lucid dreaming it does have validity as it seems to have its foundation based on much of what Dr. Hobson research has concluded. According to Hobson’s research, the aminergic system is deactivated during a dream and “being thought as responsible for periodic discharge of norepinephrine and serotonin, into the brain (Wolf, 1995, p. 312).” If this is true than as talked about before in earlier posts, the memories of dreaming or lucid dreaming would not exists because of the absence of the important memory related neurotransmitter serotonin. An activation of the aminergic system would allow for the dreamer to remember his or her lucid experiences.

The real question that I find that I now ask myself is, how often does the average person lucid dream without remembering the experience? Being unable to remember these events myself has me wondering, why is our brain so actively trying to forget such dream events as well as the 25% of life the average person is spent sleeping? More research must be done in the area of lucid dreaming as well as REM and non-REM dreaming in order to conclude anything.

References:
Wolf, F. A. (1995). The Dreaming Universe. Simon and Schuster.

As promised here is the link for the .pdf files made by Mr. Yuschak:
http://www.searchmovement.com/sleepdocs/

On a side note, it seems that anyone dealing with lucid dreaming still doesn’t know what happened to Mr. Yuschak as he seems not to be in contact with anyone.

-L

Lucid Dreaming: A Valid Explanation

Thanks to another great e-mail that I received from Scot Stride, I have obtained some useful documents written by Mr. Yuschak that were posted on the AdvancedLD website until the site went down. Links to these documents are posted at the end of this post.

In the e-mail from Mr. Stride, he also committed about his own hypothesis of why we lucid dream. Here is what he had to say:

The crux of lucid dreaming is the awakening of the aminergic system which allows the person to think rationally enough to recognize the mental hallucinations as dreams. Vividness and memory alone are not enough to overcome the "idiotic" state of the mind during REM dreaming. Unless the aminergic system is above a certain threshold of rational functioning, the dreamer can't become lucid. I'm beginning to conclude that the only supplements which hold promise are those that enhance the aminergic system (serotonin and norephinephrine). There is further benefit in raising the levels of brain Histamine, which is tricky because there are not that many supplements that can do it (e.g., L-Histidine). I've also concluded that increased cerebral blood flow is important. Aspirin is an indirect vasodilator by raising Nitrous Oxide (NO) levels. Niacin (Niacinamide) and L-Arginine also increase cerebral blood flow. This is important because the brain functions better and is more alert with better blood flow.

After reviewing his hypothesis for lucid dreaming it does have validity as it seems to have its foundation based on much of what Dr. Hobson research has concluded. According to Hobson’s research, the aminergic system is deactivated during a dream and “being thought as responsible for periodic discharge of norepinephrine and serotonin, into the brain (Wolf, 1995, p. 312).” If this is true than as talked about before in earlier posts, the memories of dreaming or lucid dreaming would not exists because of the absence of the important memory related neurotransmitter serotonin. An activation of the aminergic system would allow for the dreamer to remember his or her lucid experiences.

The real question that I find that I now ask myself is, how often does the average person lucid dream without remembering the experience? Being unable to remember these events myself has me wondering, why is our brain so actively trying to forget such dream events as well as the 25% of life the average person is spent sleeping? More research must be done in the area of lucid dreaming as well as REM and non-REM dreaming in order to conclude anything.

References:
Wolf, F. A. (1995). The Dreaming Universe. Simon and Schuster.


As promised here is the link for the .pdf files made by Mr. Yuschak:
http://www.searchmovement.com/sleepdocs/

On a side note, it seems that anyone dealing with lucid dreaming still doesn’t know what happened to Mr. Yuschak as he seems not to be in contact with anyone.

-L

Sunday, January 25, 2009

Sigmund Freud Dream Hypothesis: (Part 2)

In the video, “Dream Debate” the main topic in the debate was if Freud’s theories about dream interoperation can still hold up to modern science today. Both Allen Hobson and Mark Solms showed supporting evidence in the debate that ended with no conclusion, however they gave me a better understanding of how little is known into the realm of dreaming and the human brain. As stated in an earlier post, I wanted to show a few different types of dream theories as well as a conclusion of my own possible theory.

Freud:
As it is well know that Freud supports the understanding that the subconscious as a key player into the realms of our mind, he also suggests that dreams are a great way of exploring the subconscious. Though much is unknown about the subconscious there has been substantial evidence showing that such a separation of our consciousness does exist, however the question of how does our dreams play out in the role of our subconscious is still a mystery. Some of the answers to those questions are provided in the theories of Freud and his supporters.

Freud suggested that during our REM phase of sleep the subconscious plays out its needs as past infantile wants. In more philological terms, the ego is weakened during sleep as the id becomes dominate and is able to express itself freely (Hameroff, 2006). As importance it is for our infantile needs to be expressed during our REM phase of sleep, equally important is concealing those needs and experiences from our waking mind. Because of this, our body experiences sleep paralysis while in REM sleep along with memory loss of the events our dreams when we awake. The reason for this is unknown, but suggested that if our conscious mind knew about these needs it would be greatly affected and unable to process them correctly. To have us forget our dreams, our subconscious represses what happened to us at night. These subconscious infantile fantasy dreams are considered the story like dreams we experience.

In order to explain the more erratic and irrational dreams, Freud explains them as outside events that are interpreted by our subconscious to produce reasonable explanations in our dreams. This explanation seems to go hand in hand with the concept of attractors. Attractors are based on a theory of how our brain comes up with conclusions of information. It uses the information that we know about our surroundings, experiences, feelings, ect. to conclude what an object or event taking place is. In short, the attractor theory is an explanation of what is happening though our senses or past knowledge (Barrett & McNamara, 2007). Since during sleep, our senses of the waking world sometimes become oversensitive (due to activation or deactivation of specific areas of our brain); attractors are concluded by our brain and a mistaken response and represented in our dreams inaccurately.

Though Freud does seem to point out some interesting information and conclusions of why we dream, his theory does contain many flaws. Interesting enough is massive amount of information provided by individuals that act out or have memorable accounts of REM dreams that contradict the theory of infantile need being the bases of our reason for dreaming. Patients that experience REM behavior disorder (RBD), act out their dreams in waking life while in REM. These dreams are often violent and sometimes end in patients hurting themselves or trying to hurt others (Barrett & McNamara, 2007). RBD is suggested to be caused because of the failure in the sleep paralysis activator in the brainstem.

Another flaw in Freud’s theories of dreams has been pointed out by Dr. Hobson is the evidence of non-REM dreaming. Not all dreams are experienced in the REM stage of sleep. In fact 25% of our dreams occur outside of REM sleep (Hameroff, 2006). Many of these dreams are remembered due to the fact that sleep paralysis is activated in REM sleep along with the deactivation of the forebrain. Remembering these non-REM dreams could be concluded as a failure of the subconscious repressing the infantile needs from the conscious mind; however, much evidence shows lucid type dreams are experienced during this time frame as well as night terrors (NT).

In just these two examples it’s easy to see some of the flaws in the dream model supported by Freud. The fact that many of our dreams are experienced during non-REM counteracts the theory that dreams are only because of the subconscious, since our subconscious is thought to be activated in the REM phase of sleep. Also the fact that many of our REM and non-REM dreams express violent tendencies and fearful elements as well as conscious control (such as in Lucid dreaming) shows that dreams are not only limited to the subconscious infantile expressions of wants and needs. We can also throw out the requirement for dreams to be forgotten because many of our REM dreams are remembered as modulation of the forebrain is reactivated as we awaken (allowing long term memory of our dreams) as is our non-REM dreams being remembered due to the absence of forebrain demodulation. I would suggest that not all of Freud’s theory of dreaming is flawed and that his understanding of the subconscious actions during REM is warranted and should be used as one instance of dreaming.

Combination:
As I talked earlier about the dream theory of Activation-synthesis, I would like to compile my own dream theory based on theories presented by Freud and Hobson.
Demodulation of the forebrain as well as the activation of different parts of the brain during non-REM dreaming is supported by recent PET scan studies. During REM sleep additional parts of the brain are demodulated as well as activated. Since the experience of dreams both exist during non-REM and REM, this would mean that REM is not a requirement for dreaming. Though REM dreams do exist and seem to show outcomes of non-lucid type dreams the majority of the time, it should be suggested that the subconscious does play out an important role during REM sleep. PET scans also show evidence of activation of subconscious related areas of the brain during REM sleep, which also supports Freud’s theory. To what degree the subconscious plays a role in our dreams is unknown, but with many of our REM dreams being unexplainable as well as violent suggests that these are not only childhood wants or needs. It has been suggested that many REM aggressive type dreams are an ancestry way of preparing us to survive in the wilderness that we used to be accustomed to. There is also evidence that supports that these violent dreams are produced by sex hormones since males with RBD experienced more violent dreams then do woman (Barrett & McNamara, 2007).

Different than the previous dream explanations are the more unexplored states of dreaming that seem to involve a type of REM lucid dreaming. Evidence shows that some patients are able to experience the transitional period of non-REM to REM sleep while being conscious. These experiences are expressed as night terrors, sleep paralysis, wake induced lucid dreaming, and out of the body experiences. These types of dreams seem to be much more vivid as well as sometimes terrifying. It has been suggested that the terrifying type of dreams are independent of sleep paralysis and the result of the conscious mind interacting with the subconscious. While both the conscious and subconscious areas of the brain are modulated, emotional complications take place such as fear and anxiety and sometimes present themselves as a feeling of a presence of a hallucinogenic representation of that fear. If the fear is overcome patients have described a sense of complete control of the
ir dreams. If the fear is accepted as real, the patient is awoken in panic and describes a NT as have taking place.

The explanation for the reasons of dreams it is still unknown as is the purpose for them. The previous evidence and explanations do show that there are many different types of dreams and many of them are independent of demodulation as well as activation of a specific area in the brain but more a combination of those events. It also shows evidence that dreaming is independent of REM sleep as dreaming can be experienced in non-REM stages of sleep. Lastly it shows that dreams are independent of subconscious interaction or control because of the evidence of lucid dreaming during non-REM and wake induced lucid dreaming. It can be concluded that no one explanation for dreaming should be used when explaining the processes for dreams. Today little is known about dreams and until science produces a way to physically examines dreams and produces a stable accepted theory, all theories of dreams should be explored and considered as possible theories. This holds truth to no matter how bazaar those theories may seem.

References:

Barrett, D., & McNamara, P. (2007). The New Science of Dreaming. Praeger Publishers.
Hameroff, M. B. (Director). (2006). Dream Debate [Motion Picture].

-L

Sigmund Freud Dream Hypothesis: (Part 2)

In the video, “Dream Debate” the main topic in the debate was if Freud’s theories about dream interoperation can still hold up to modern science today. Both Allen Hobson and Mark Solms showed supporting evidence in the debate that ended with no conclusion, however they gave me a better understanding of how little is known into the realm of dreaming and the human brain. As stated in an earlier post, I wanted to show a few different types of dream theories as well as a conclusion of my own possible theory.

Freud:
As it is well know that Freud supports the understanding that the subconscious as a key player into the realms of our mind, he also suggests that dreams are a great way of exploring the subconscious. Though much is unknown about the subconscious there has been substantial evidence showing that such a separation of our consciousness does exist, however the question of how does our dreams play out in the role of our subconscious is still a mystery. Some of the answers to those questions are provided in the theories of Freud and his supporters.

Freud suggested that during our REM phase of sleep the subconscious plays out its needs as past infantile wants. In more philological terms, the ego is weakened during sleep as the id becomes dominate and is able to express itself freely (Hameroff, 2006). As importance it is for our infantile needs to be expressed during our REM phase of sleep, equally important is concealing those needs and experiences from our waking mind. Because of this, our body experiences sleep paralysis while in REM sleep along with memory loss of the events our dreams when we awake. The reason for this is unknown, but suggested that if our conscious mind knew about these needs it would be greatly affected and unable to process them correctly. To have us forget our dreams, our subconscious represses what happened to us at night. These subconscious infantile fantasy dreams are considered the story like dreams we experience.

In order to explain the more erratic and irrational dreams, Freud explains them as outside events that are interpreted by our subconscious to produce reasonable explanations in our dreams. This explanation seems to go hand in hand with the concept of attractors. Attractors are based on a theory of how our brain comes up with conclusions of information. It uses the information that we know about our surroundings, experiences, feelings, ect. to conclude what an object or event taking place is. In short, the attractor theory is an explanation of what is happening though our senses or past knowledge (Barrett & McNamara, 2007). Since during sleep, our senses of the waking world sometimes become oversensitive (due to activation or deactivation of specific areas of our brain); attractors are concluded by our brain and a mistaken response and represented in our dreams inaccurately.

Though Freud does seem to point out some interesting information and conclusions of why we dream, his theory does contain many flaws. Interesting enough is massive amount of information provided by individuals that act out or have memorable accounts of REM dreams that contradict the theory of infantile need being the bases of our reason for dreaming. Patients that experience REM behavior disorder (RBD), act out their dreams in waking life while in REM. These dreams are often violent and sometimes end in patients hurting themselves or trying to hurt others (Barrett & McNamara, 2007). RBD is suggested to be caused because of the failure in the sleep paralysis activator in the brainstem.

Another flaw in Freud’s theories of dreams has been pointed out by Dr. Hobson is the evidence of non-REM dreaming. Not all dreams are experienced in the REM stage of sleep. In fact 25% of our dreams occur outside of REM sleep (Hameroff, 2006). Many of these dreams are remembered due to the fact that sleep paralysis is activated in REM sleep along with the deactivation of the forebrain. Remembering these non-REM dreams could be concluded as a failure of the subconscious repressing the infantile needs from the conscious mind; however, much evidence shows lucid type dreams are experienced during this time frame as well as night terrors (NT).

In just these two examples it’s easy to see some of the flaws in the dream model supported by Freud. The fact that many of our dreams are experienced during non-REM counteracts the theory that dreams are only because of the subconscious, since our subconscious is thought to be activated in the REM phase of sleep. Also the fact that many of our REM and non-REM dreams express violent tendencies and fearful elements as well as conscious control (such as in Lucid dreaming) shows that dreams are not only limited to the subconscious infantile expressions of wants and needs. We can also throw out the requirement for dreams to be forgotten because many of our REM dreams are remembered as modulation of the forebrain is reactivated as we awaken (allowing long term memory of our dreams) as is our non-REM dreams being remembered due to the absence of forebrain demodulation. I would suggest that not all of Freud’s theory of dreaming is flawed and that his understanding of the subconscious actions during REM is warranted and should be used as one instance of dreaming.

Combination:
As I talked earlier about the dream theory of Activation-synthesis, I would like to compile my own dream theory based on theories presented by Freud and Hobson.
Demodulation of the forebrain as well as the activation of different parts of the brain during non-REM dreaming is supported by recent PET scan studies. During REM sleep additional parts of the brain are demodulated as well as activated. Since the experience of dreams both exist during non-REM and REM, this would mean that REM is not a requirement for dreaming. Though REM dreams do exist and seem to show outcomes of non-lucid type dreams the majority of the time, it should be suggested that the subconscious does play out an important role during REM sleep. PET scans also show evidence of activation of subconscious related areas of the brain during REM sleep, which also supports Freud’s theory. To what degree the subconscious plays a role in our dreams is unknown, but with many of our REM dreams being unexplainable as well as violent suggests that these are not only childhood wants or needs. It has been suggested that many REM aggressive type dreams are an ancestry way of preparing us to survive in the wilderness that we used to be accustomed to. There is also evidence that supports that these violent dreams are produced by sex hormones since males with RBD experienced more violent dreams then do woman (Barrett & McNamara, 2007).

Different than the previous dream explanations are the more unexplored states of dreaming that seem to involve a type of REM lucid dreaming. Evidence shows that some patients are able to experience the transitional period of non-REM to REM sleep while being conscious. These experiences are expressed as night terrors, sleep paralysis, wake induced lucid dreaming, and out of the body experiences. These types of dreams seem to be much more vivid as well as sometimes terrifying. It has been suggested that the terrifying type of dreams are independent of sleep paralysis and the result of the conscious mind interacting with the subconscious. While both the conscious and subconscious areas of the brain are modulated, emotional complications take place such as fear and anxiety and sometimes present themselves as a feeling of a presence of a hallucinogenic representation of that fear. If the fear is overcome patients have described a sense of complete control of the
ir dreams. If the fear is accepted as real, the patient is awoken in panic and describes a NT as have taking place.

The explanation for the reasons of dreams it is still unknown as is the purpose for them. The previous evidence and explanations do show that there are many different types of dreams and many of them are independent of demodulation as well as activation of a specific area in the brain but more a combination of those events. It also shows evidence that dreaming is independent of REM sleep as dreaming can be experienced in non-REM stages of sleep. Lastly it shows that dreams are independent of subconscious interaction or control because of the evidence of lucid dreaming during non-REM and wake induced lucid dreaming. It can be concluded that no one explanation for dreaming should be used when explaining the processes for dreams. Today little is known about dreams and until science produces a way to physically examines dreams and produces a stable accepted theory, all theories of dreams should be explored and considered as possible theories. This holds truth to no matter how bazaar those theories may seem.

References:

Barrett, D., & McNamara, P. (2007). The New Science of Dreaming. Praeger Publishers.
Hameroff, M. B. (Director). (2006). Dream Debate [Motion Picture].

-L

Sigmund Freud Dream Hypothesis: (Part 2)

In the video, “Dream Debate” the main topic in the debate was if Freud’s theories about dream interoperation can still hold up to modern science today. Both Allen Hobson and Mark Solms showed supporting evidence in the debate that ended with no conclusion, however they gave me a better understanding of how little is known into the realm of dreaming and the human brain. As stated in an earlier post, I wanted to show a few different types of dream theories as well as a conclusion of my own possible theory.

Freud:
As it is well know that Freud supports the understanding that the subconscious as a key player into the realms of our mind, he also suggests that dreams are a great way of exploring the subconscious. Though much is unknown about the subconscious there has been substantial evidence showing that such a separation of our consciousness does exist, however the question of how does our dreams play out in the role of our subconscious is still a mystery. Some of the answers to those questions are provided in the theories of Freud and his supporters.

Freud suggested that during our REM phase of sleep the subconscious plays out its needs as past infantile wants. In more philological terms, the ego is weakened during sleep as the id becomes dominate and is able to express itself freely (Hameroff, 2006). As importance it is for our infantile needs to be expressed during our REM phase of sleep, equally important is concealing those needs and experiences from our waking mind. Because of this, our body experiences sleep paralysis while in REM sleep along with memory loss of the events our dreams when we awake. The reason for this is unknown, but suggested that if our conscious mind knew about these needs it would be greatly affected and unable to process them correctly. To have us forget our dreams, our subconscious represses what happened to us at night. These subconscious infantile fantasy dreams are considered the story like dreams we experience.

In order to explain the more erratic and irrational dreams, Freud explains them as outside events that are interpreted by our subconscious to produce reasonable explanations in our dreams. This explanation seems to go hand in hand with the concept of attractors. Attractors are based on a theory of how our brain comes up with conclusions of information. It uses the information that we know about our surroundings, experiences, feelings, ect. to conclude what an object or event taking place is. In short, the attractor theory is an explanation of what is happening though our senses or past knowledge (Barrett & McNamara, 2007). Since during sleep, our senses of the waking world sometimes become oversensitive (due to activation or deactivation of specific areas of our brain); attractors are concluded by our brain and a mistaken response and represented in our dreams inaccurately.

Though Freud does seem to point out some interesting information and conclusions of why we dream, his theory does contain many flaws. Interesting enough is massive amount of information provided by individuals that act out or have memorable accounts of REM dreams that contradict the theory of infantile need being the bases of our reason for dreaming. Patients that experience REM behavior disorder (RBD), act out their dreams in waking life while in REM. These dreams are often violent and sometimes end in patients hurting themselves or trying to hurt others (Barrett & McNamara, 2007). RBD is suggested to be caused because of the failure in the sleep paralysis activator in the brainstem.

Another flaw in Freud’s theories of dreams has been pointed out by Dr. Hobson is the evidence of non-REM dreaming. Not all dreams are experienced in the REM stage of sleep. In fact 25% of our dreams occur outside of REM sleep (Hameroff, 2006). Many of these dreams are remembered due to the fact that sleep paralysis is activated in REM sleep along with the deactivation of the forebrain. Remembering these non-REM dreams could be concluded as a failure of the subconscious repressing the infantile needs from the conscious mind; however, much evidence shows lucid type dreams are experienced during this time frame as well as night terrors (NT).

In just these two examples it’s easy to see some of the flaws in the dream model supported by Freud. The fact that many of our dreams are experienced during non-REM counteracts the theory that dreams are only because of the subconscious, since our subconscious is thought to be activated in the REM phase of sleep. Also the fact that many of our REM and non-REM dreams express violent tendencies and fearful elements as well as conscious control (such as in Lucid dreaming) shows that dreams are not only limited to the subconscious infantile expressions of wants and needs. We can also throw out the requirement for dreams to be forgotten because many of our REM dreams are remembered as modulation of the forebrain is reactivated as we awaken (allowing long term memory of our dreams) as is our non-REM dreams being remembered due to the absence of forebrain demodulation. I would suggest that not all of Freud’s theory of dreaming is flawed and that his understanding of the subconscious actions during REM is warranted and should be used as one instance of dreaming.

Combination:
As I talked earlier about the dream theory of Activation-synthesis, I would like to compile my own dream theory based on theories presented by Freud and Hobson.
Demodulation of the forebrain as well as the activation of different parts of the brain during non-REM dreaming is supported by recent PET scan studies. During REM sleep additional parts of the brain are demodulated as well as activated. Since the experience of dreams both exist during non-REM and REM, this would mean that REM is not a requirement for dreaming. Though REM dreams do exist and seem to show outcomes of non-lucid type dreams the majority of the time, it should be suggested that the subconscious does play out an important role during REM sleep. PET scans also show evidence of activation of subconscious related areas of the brain during REM sleep, which also supports Freud’s theory. To what degree the subconscious plays a role in our dreams is unknown, but with many of our REM dreams being unexplainable as well as violent suggests that these are not only childhood wants or needs. It has been suggested that many REM aggressive type dreams are an ancestry way of preparing us to survive in the wilderness that we used to be accustomed to. There is also evidence that supports that these violent dreams are produced by sex hormones since males with RBD experienced more violent dreams then do woman (Barrett & McNamara, 2007).

Different than the previous dream explanations are the more unexplored states of dreaming that seem to involve a type of REM lucid dreaming. Evidence shows that some patients are able to experience the transitional period of non-REM to REM sleep while being conscious. These experiences are expressed as night terrors, sleep paralysis, wake induced lucid dreaming, and out of the body experiences. These types of dreams seem to be much more vivid as well as sometimes terrifying. It has been suggested that the terrifying type of dreams are independent of sleep paralysis and the result of the conscious mind interacting with the subconscious. While both the conscious and subconscious areas of the brain are modulated, emotional complications take place such as fear and anxiety and sometimes present themselves as a feeling of a presence of a hallucinogenic representation of that fear. If the fear is overcome patients have described a sense of complete control of the
ir dreams. If the fear is accepted as real, the patient is awoken in panic and describes a NT as have taking place.

The explanation for the reasons of dreams it is still unknown as is the purpose for them. The previous evidence and explanations do show that there are many different types of dreams and many of them are independent of demodulation as well as activation of a specific area in the brain but more a combination of those events. It also shows evidence that dreaming is independent of REM sleep as dreaming can be experienced in non-REM stages of sleep. Lastly it shows that dreams are independent of subconscious interaction or control because of the evidence of lucid dreaming during non-REM and wake induced lucid dreaming. It can be concluded that no one explanation for dreaming should be used when explaining the processes for dreams. Today little is known about dreams and until science produces a way to physically examines dreams and produces a stable accepted theory, all theories of dreams should be explored and considered as possible theories. This holds truth to no matter how bazaar those theories may seem.

References:

Barrett, D., & McNamara, P. (2007). The New Science of Dreaming. Praeger Publishers.
Hameroff, M. B. (Director). (2006). Dream Debate [Motion Picture].

-L

Sigmund Freud Dream Hypothesis: (Part 2)

In the video, “Dream Debate” the main topic in the debate was if Freud’s theories about dream interoperation can still hold up to modern science today. Both Allen Hobson and Mark Solms showed supporting evidence in the debate that ended with no conclusion, however they gave me a better understanding of how little is known into the realm of dreaming and the human brain. As stated in an earlier post, I wanted to show a few different types of dream theories as well as a conclusion of my own possible theory.

Freud:
As it is well know that Freud supports the understanding that the subconscious as a key player into the realms of our mind, he also suggests that dreams are a great way of exploring the subconscious. Though much is unknown about the subconscious there has been substantial evidence showing that such a separation of our consciousness does exist, however the question of how does our dreams play out in the role of our subconscious is still a mystery. Some of the answers to those questions are provided in the theories of Freud and his supporters.

Freud suggested that during our REM phase of sleep the subconscious plays out its needs as past infantile wants. In more philological terms, the ego is weakened during sleep as the id becomes dominate and is able to express itself freely (Hameroff, 2006). As importance it is for our infantile needs to be expressed during our REM phase of sleep, equally important is concealing those needs and experiences from our waking mind. Because of this, our body experiences sleep paralysis while in REM sleep along with memory loss of the events our dreams when we awake. The reason for this is unknown, but suggested that if our conscious mind knew about these needs it would be greatly affected and unable to process them correctly. To have us forget our dreams, our subconscious represses what happened to us at night. These subconscious infantile fantasy dreams are considered the story like dreams we experience.

In order to explain the more erratic and irrational dreams, Freud explains them as outside events that are interpreted by our subconscious to produce reasonable explanations in our dreams. This explanation seems to go hand in hand with the concept of attractors. Attractors are based on a theory of how our brain comes up with conclusions of information. It uses the information that we know about our surroundings, experiences, feelings, ect. to conclude what an object or event taking place is. In short, the attractor theory is an explanation of what is happening though our senses or past knowledge (Barrett & McNamara, 2007). Since during sleep, our senses of the waking world sometimes become oversensitive (due to activation or deactivation of specific areas of our brain); attractors are concluded by our brain and a mistaken response and represented in our dreams inaccurately.

Though Freud does seem to point out some interesting information and conclusions of why we dream, his theory does contain many flaws. Interesting enough is massive amount of information provided by individuals that act out or have memorable accounts of REM dreams that contradict the theory of infantile need being the bases of our reason for dreaming. Patients that experience REM behavior disorder (RBD), act out their dreams in waking life while in REM. These dreams are often violent and sometimes end in patients hurting themselves or trying to hurt others (Barrett & McNamara, 2007). RBD is suggested to be caused because of the failure in the sleep paralysis activator in the brainstem.

Another flaw in Freud’s theories of dreams has been pointed out by Dr. Hobson is the evidence of non-REM dreaming. Not all dreams are experienced in the REM stage of sleep. In fact 25% of our dreams occur outside of REM sleep (Hameroff, 2006). Many of these dreams are remembered due to the fact that sleep paralysis is activated in REM sleep along with the deactivation of the forebrain. Remembering these non-REM dreams could be concluded as a failure of the subconscious repressing the infantile needs from the conscious mind; however, much evidence shows lucid type dreams are experienced during this time frame as well as night terrors (NT).

In just these two examples it’s easy to see some of the flaws in the dream model supported by Freud. The fact that many of our dreams are experienced during non-REM counteracts the theory that dreams are only because of the subconscious, since our subconscious is thought to be activated in the REM phase of sleep. Also the fact that many of our REM and non-REM dreams express violent tendencies and fearful elements as well as conscious control (such as in Lucid dreaming) shows that dreams are not only limited to the subconscious infantile expressions of wants and needs. We can also throw out the requirement for dreams to be forgotten because many of our REM dreams are remembered as modulation of the forebrain is reactivated as we awaken (allowing long term memory of our dreams) as is our non-REM dreams being remembered due to the absence of forebrain demodulation. I would suggest that not all of Freud’s theory of dreaming is flawed and that his understanding of the subconscious actions during REM is warranted and should be used as one instance of dreaming.

Combination:
As I talked earlier about the dream theory of Activation-synthesis, I would like to compile my own dream theory based on theories presented by Freud and Hobson.
Demodulation of the forebrain as well as the activation of different parts of the brain during non-REM dreaming is supported by recent PET scan studies. During REM sleep additional parts of the brain are demodulated as well as activated. Since the experience of dreams both exist during non-REM and REM, this would mean that REM is not a requirement for dreaming. Though REM dreams do exist and seem to show outcomes of non-lucid type dreams the majority of the time, it should be suggested that the subconscious does play out an important role during REM sleep. PET scans also show evidence of activation of subconscious related areas of the brain during REM sleep, which also supports Freud’s theory. To what degree the subconscious plays a role in our dreams is unknown, but with many of our REM dreams being unexplainable as well as violent suggests that these are not only childhood wants or needs. It has been suggested that many REM aggressive type dreams are an ancestry way of preparing us to survive in the wilderness that we used to be accustomed to. There is also evidence that supports that these violent dreams are produced by sex hormones since males with RBD experienced more violent dreams then do woman (Barrett & McNamara, 2007).

Different than the previous dream explanations are the more unexplored states of dreaming that seem to involve a type of REM lucid dreaming. Evidence shows that some patients are able to experience the transitional period of non-REM to REM sleep while being conscious. These experiences are expressed as night terrors, sleep paralysis, wake induced lucid dreaming, and out of the body experiences. These types of dreams seem to be much more vivid as well as sometimes terrifying. It has been suggested that the terrifying type of dreams are independent of sleep paralysis and the result of the conscious mind interacting with the subconscious. While both the conscious and subconscious areas of the brain are modulated, emotional complications take place such as fear and anxiety and sometimes present themselves as a feeling of a presence of a hallucinogenic representation of that fear. If the fear is overcome patients have described a sense of complete control of their dreams. If the fear is accepted as real, the patient is awoken in panic and describes a NT as have taking place.

The explanation for the reasons of dreams it is still unknown as is the purpose for them. The previous evidence and explanations do show that there are many different types of dreams and many of them are independent of demodulation as well as activation of a specific area in the brain but more a combination of those events. It also shows evidence that dreaming is independent of REM sleep as dreaming can be experienced in non-REM stages of sleep. Lastly it shows that dreams are independent of subconscious interaction or control because of the evidence of lucid dreaming during non-REM and wake induced lucid dreaming. It can be concluded that no one explanation for dreaming should be used when explaining the processes for dreams. Today little is known about dreams and until science produces a way to physically examines dreams and produces a stable accepted theory, all theories of dreams should be explored and considered as possible theories. This holds truth to no matter how bazaar those theories may seem.

References:

Barrett, D., & McNamara, P. (2007). The New Science of Dreaming. Praeger Publishers.
Hameroff, M. B. (Director). (2006). Dream Debate [Motion Picture].

-L

Saturday, January 24, 2009

LDS: The Videos

Thanks to a recent e-mail from Scot Stride (reviewer of the book Advanced Lucid Dreaming) I have a list of some informative lucid dream supplement videos on YouTube.com. Check them out:

LDS Tutorial Part 1: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Pt4kX-ByQak
LDS Tutorial Part 2: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=nm0tZ3bJP6Y
LDS Tutorial Part 3: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=bdmv0y0YHMI
LDS Tutorial Part 4: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ZOIOKYOWcjo

-L

LDS: The Videos

Thanks to a recent e-mail from Scot Stride (reviewer of the book Advanced Lucid Dreaming) I have a list of some informative lucid dream supplement videos on YouTube.com. Check them out:

LDS Tutorial Part 1: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Pt4kX-ByQak
LDS Tutorial Part 2: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=nm0tZ3bJP6Y
LDS Tutorial Part 3: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=bdmv0y0YHMI
LDS Tutorial Part 4: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ZOIOKYOWcjo

-L

LDS: The Videos

Thanks to a recent e-mail from Scot Stride (reviewer of the book Advanced Lucid Dreaming) I have a list of some informative lucid dream supplement videos on YouTube.com. Check them out:

LDS Tutorial Part 1: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Pt4kX-ByQak
LDS Tutorial Part 2: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=nm0tZ3bJP6Y
LDS Tutorial Part 3: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=bdmv0y0YHMI
LDS Tutorial Part 4: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ZOIOKYOWcjo

-L

LDS: The Videos

Thanks to a recent e-mail from Scot Stride (reviewer of the book Advanced Lucid Dreaming) I have a list of some informative lucid dream supplement videos on YouTube.com. Check them out:

LDS Tutorial Part 1: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Pt4kX-ByQak
LDS Tutorial Part 2: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=nm0tZ3bJP6Y
LDS Tutorial Part 3: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=bdmv0y0YHMI
LDS Tutorial Part 4: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ZOIOKYOWcjo

-L

Friday, January 23, 2009

Niacin and PDG2- The “Sleep” Substance?

L and I have been thinking for a while now that there has to be some kind of chemical(s), or lack there of, responsible for sleep deprivation. For those who don’t know, when the body is deprived of sleep for a night or two, all kinds of issues await the deprived sleeper. Some have even used the deprivation technique to induce hallucinations. However, science is still unsure as to the exact mechanisms and chemicals that may be involved in falling asleep. Or for that matter, what might be being deprived by not sleeping. That being said, there seems to be tantalizing evidence surrounding a curious substance known as PDG2.

According to Biology-Online.org, Prostaglandin D2 (PDG2) is a metabolite (a substance produced by a metabolic process) of arachidonic acid ( an “essential dietary component for mammals”). Armed with this vague definition, one can then look at something that might be of interest to sleep junkies. Check out this link to a French study done in 1994:

http://www.websciences.org/cftemplate/NAPS/archives/indiv.cfm?ID=19964559

For those who didn’t copy and paste the link, they essentially deprived mice of REM sleep. When compared to the control group, the REM deprived mice showed significant depletion of PDG2! This was curious to the French researchers because they had known that PGD2 had sleep inducing properties.

PGD2 is also being studied at the Osaka Bioscience Institute in Japan.

http://www.obi.or.jp/english/introduction/behavioral.html


The Osaka folks say that PGD2 may just be the chemical responsible for endogenously inducing non-REM sleep. They also say, “ [PDG2] is now accepted as the most potent endogenous sleep-promoting substance. Wow! Take that Melatonin!

As you may have guessed, PGD2 isn’t exactly found at your local supplement store. However, there is something that seems to aid the body in PGD2 production. That substance, is Niacin. Otherwise known as vitamin B3. Pure Niacin has a peculiar reaction when taken in the large amounts found in supplements. It produces what is known as a “Niacin-flush”. Characteristics of the flush include a burning or itching sensations, accompanied by redness of the skin. Scientists have developed varieties of “flush-free” Niacin but if you are interested in the PGD2, then you may need to go through the burning-itchy-fire that is a Niacin flush.

Here’s a study in the Journal of Pharmacology done in September of 2008

http://jpet.aspetjournals.org/cgi/content/abstract/jpet.108.141333v1


While experimenting on our rodent neighbors, these scientists found that, “Niacin increases plasma PGD2 and serotonin in a rat model of flush.” Once again, the flush is what causes PGD2 release.

To summarize, PGD2 may very well be the endogenous substance that promotes non-REM sleep. A before bed Niacin flush is an effective, (although one has to be always be careful) method of increasing the body’s amount of PGD2.

Armed with this knowledge, I’ve been having a nightly Niacin flush. And I must confess, the sleep has been great.

Good luck and Happy Dreaming

-R

Niacin and PDG2- The “Sleep” Substance?

L and I have been thinking for a while now that there has to be some kind of chemical(s), or lack there of, responsible for sleep deprivation. For those who don’t know, when the body is deprived of sleep for a night or two, all kinds of issues await the deprived sleeper. Some have even used the deprivation technique to induce hallucinations. However, science is still unsure as to the exact mechanisms and chemicals that may be involved in falling asleep. Or for that matter, what might be being deprived by not sleeping. That being said, there seems to be tantalizing evidence surrounding a curious substance known as PDG2.

According to Biology-Online.org, Prostaglandin D2 (PDG2) is a metabolite (a substance produced by a metabolic process) of arachidonic acid ( an “essential dietary component for mammals”). Armed with this vague definition, one can then look at something that might be of interest to sleep junkies. Check out this link to a French study done in 1994:

http://www.websciences.org/cftemplate/NAPS/archives/indiv.cfm?ID=19964559

For those who didn’t copy and paste the link, they essentially deprived mice of REM sleep. When compared to the control group, the REM deprived mice showed significant depletion of PDG2! This was curious to the French researchers because they had known that PGD2 had sleep inducing properties.

PGD2 is also being studied at the Osaka Bioscience Institute in Japan.

http://www.obi.or.jp/english/introduction/behavioral.html


The Osaka folks say that PGD2 may just be the chemical responsible for endogenously inducing non-REM sleep. They also say, “ [PDG2] is now accepted as the most potent endogenous sleep-promoting substance. Wow! Take that Melatonin!

As you may have guessed, PGD2 isn’t exactly found at your local supplement store. However, there is something that seems to aid the body in PGD2 production. That substance, is Niacin. Otherwise known as vitamin B3. Pure Niacin has a peculiar reaction when taken in the large amounts found in supplements. It produces what is known as a “Niacin-flush”. Characteristics of the flush include a burning or itching sensations, accompanied by redness of the skin. Scientists have developed varieties of “flush-free” Niacin but if you are interested in the PGD2, then you may need to go through the burning-itchy-fire that is a Niacin flush.

Here’s a study in the Journal of Pharmacology done in September of 2008

http://jpet.aspetjournals.org/cgi/content/abstract/jpet.108.141333v1


While experimenting on our rodent neighbors, these scientists found that, “Niacin increases plasma PGD2 and serotonin in a rat model of flush.” Once again, the flush is what causes PGD2 release.

To summarize, PGD2 may very well be the endogenous substance that promotes non-REM sleep. A before bed Niacin flush is an effective, (although one has to be always be careful) method of increasing the body’s amount of PGD2.

Armed with this knowledge, I’ve been having a nightly Niacin flush. And I must confess, the sleep has been great.

Good luck and Happy Dreaming

-R

Niacin and PDG2- The “Sleep” Substance?

L and I have been thinking for a while now that there has to be some kind of chemical(s), or lack there of, responsible for sleep deprivation. For those who don’t know, when the body is deprived of sleep for a night or two, all kinds of issues await the deprived sleeper. Some have even used the deprivation technique to induce hallucinations. However, science is still unsure as to the exact mechanisms and chemicals that may be involved in falling asleep. Or for that matter, what might be being deprived by not sleeping. That being said, there seems to be tantalizing evidence surrounding a curious substance known as PDG2.

According to Biology-Online.org, Prostaglandin D2 (PDG2) is a metabolite (a substance produced by a metabolic process) of arachidonic acid ( an “essential dietary component for mammals”). Armed with this vague definition, one can then look at something that might be of interest to sleep junkies. Check out this link to a French study done in 1994:

http://www.websciences.org/cftemplate/NAPS/archives/indiv.cfm?ID=19964559

For those who didn’t copy and paste the link, they essentially deprived mice of REM sleep. When compared to the control group, the REM deprived mice showed significant depletion of PDG2! This was curious to the French researchers because they had known that PGD2 had sleep inducing properties.

PGD2 is also being studied at the Osaka Bioscience Institute in Japan.

http://www.obi.or.jp/english/introduction/behavioral.html


The Osaka folks say that PGD2 may just be the chemical responsible for endogenously inducing non-REM sleep. They also say, “ [PDG2] is now accepted as the most potent endogenous sleep-promoting substance. Wow! Take that Melatonin!

As you may have guessed, PGD2 isn’t exactly found at your local supplement store. However, there is something that seems to aid the body in PGD2 production. That substance, is Niacin. Otherwise known as vitamin B3. Pure Niacin has a peculiar reaction when taken in the large amounts found in supplements. It produces what is known as a “Niacin-flush”. Characteristics of the flush include a burning or itching sensations, accompanied by redness of the skin. Scientists have developed varieties of “flush-free” Niacin but if you are interested in the PGD2, then you may need to go through the burning-itchy-fire that is a Niacin flush.

Here’s a study in the Journal of Pharmacology done in September of 2008

http://jpet.aspetjournals.org/cgi/content/abstract/jpet.108.141333v1


While experimenting on our rodent neighbors, these scientists found that, “Niacin increases plasma PGD2 and serotonin in a rat model of flush.” Once again, the flush is what causes PGD2 release.

To summarize, PGD2 may very well be the endogenous substance that promotes non-REM sleep. A before bed Niacin flush is an effective, (although one has to be always be careful) method of increasing the body’s amount of PGD2.

Armed with this knowledge, I’ve been having a nightly Niacin flush. And I must confess, the sleep has been great.

Good luck and Happy Dreaming

-R

Niacin and PDG2- The “Sleep” Substance?

L and I have been thinking for a while now that there has to be some kind of chemical(s), or lack there of, responsible for sleep deprivation. For those who don’t know, when the body is deprived of sleep for a night or two, all kinds of issues await the deprived sleeper. Some have even used the deprivation technique to induce hallucinations. However, science is still unsure as to the exact mechanisms and chemicals that may be involved in falling asleep. Or for that matter, what might be being deprived by not sleeping. That being said, there seems to be tantalizing evidence surrounding a curious substance known as PDG2.

According to Biology-Online.org, Prostaglandin D2 (PDG2) is a metabolite (a substance produced by a metabolic process) of arachidonic acid ( an “essential dietary component for mammals”). Armed with this vague definition, one can then look at something that might be of interest to sleep junkies. Check out this link to a French study done in 1994:

http://www.websciences.org/cftemplate/NAPS/archives/indiv.cfm?ID=19964559

For those who didn’t copy and paste the link, they essentially deprived mice of REM sleep. When compared to the control group, the REM deprived mice showed significant depletion of PDG2! This was curious to the French researchers because they had known that PGD2 had sleep inducing properties.

PGD2 is also being studied at the Osaka Bioscience Institute in Japan.

http://www.obi.or.jp/english/introduction/behavioral.html


The Osaka folks say that PGD2 may just be the chemical responsible for endogenously inducing non-REM sleep. They also say, “ [PDG2] is now accepted as the most potent endogenous sleep-promoting substance. Wow! Take that Melatonin!

As you may have guessed, PGD2 isn’t exactly found at your local supplement store. However, there is something that seems to aid the body in PGD2 production. That substance, is Niacin. Otherwise known as vitamin B3. Pure Niacin has a peculiar reaction when taken in the large amounts found in supplements. It produces what is known as a “Niacin-flush”. Characteristics of the flush include a burning or itching sensations, accompanied by redness of the skin. Scientists have developed varieties of “flush-free” Niacin but if you are interested in the PGD2, then you may need to go through the burning-itchy-fire that is a Niacin flush.

Here’s a study in the Journal of Pharmacology done in September of 2008

http://jpet.aspetjournals.org/cgi/content/abstract/jpet.108.141333v1


While experimenting on our rodent neighbors, these scientists found that, “Niacin increases plasma PGD2 and serotonin in a rat model of flush.” Once again, the flush is what causes PGD2 release.

To summarize, PGD2 may very well be the endogenous substance that promotes non-REM sleep. A before bed Niacin flush is an effective, (although one has to be always be careful) method of increasing the body’s amount of PGD2.

Armed with this knowledge, I’ve been having a nightly Niacin flush. And I must confess, the sleep has been great.

Good luck and Happy Dreaming

-R

Activation-synthesis hypothesis

As I begin to write this I am extremely sleepy because of only getting around four hours of sleep. Because of this I fully understand the importance of sleep due to how I feel, but I wonder why we dream and what causes them. Some direction into these answers have been provided in some of my most recent reading, a productive contribution of text called The New Science of Dreaming. Along with the reading I have also purchased a video called Dream Debate which features Allen Hobson and Mark Solms.

In this newest post I would like to feature one of the well known and supported theories of why we dream. In later posts I will explore on other theories as well as my own dream theory. The first one is called Activation-synthesis hypothesis.

Activation-synthesis hypothesis:

The activation synthesis hypothesis was conceived because of a number of studies done by Dr. Allen Hobson and fellow scientist that were actively involved in neuroscience. The theory is based on the concept that during the phases of sleep our brains are actively involved in either activating or deactivating different parts of our brains. The activation aspect of the dreaming process is theorized as being random and experienced in the forebrain that starts this process in the pontine brainstems ascending reticular activating system (ARAS) during the REM sleep stage (Barrett & McNamara, 2007). This evidence of demodulation and activation is greatly supported with PET scans as well as Dr. Hobson’s own creation of the “Night Cap” which oddly enough does a good job in determining patents REM episodes by only measuring head and eye movements (Hameroff, 2006). Understanding that the forebrain is a large portion of the brain, it’s somewhat misleading to believe that there is only activation happening during the REM and other sleep stages that cause us to dream.

Though I somewhat agree with Dr. Hobson’s theory (which I will explain further into the post) in reality many different portions of the forebrain show evidence in PET scans of activation as well as deactivation. The amygdale for one is theorized to be highly active during REM sleep due to the anxiety as well as aggression that are produced during sleep; the amygdale plays a key role in our waking fear responses. Another key player in our dreams is the forgetfulness of our experiences, explained by the demodulation of the prefrontal Cortex (PFC) during REM. As stated by Dr. Hobson during the debate, the key components for longer term memory is the combination of serotonin and dopamine; in the absence of serotonin, nothing new can be learned. Serotonin shows evidence as to be a demodulator of REM sleep as acetylcholine is an activator. In REM sleep the dopamineic area of our forebrain remains as activated as it is during waking state. If all the above evidence is true it would make a logical explanation of why we forget dreams as we are unable to process them into our long term memory in REM sleep. In short the demodulation of the PFC containing the serotonin neurotransmitter could allow the transition from NREM and REM stages of sleep. It also would explain why we forget our dreams the majority of the time, since we realistically dream multiple times a night. The last dream of the night would be remembered for a short term (since most of us are awoken during this time) and possibly passed into our long term memory as PFC activation is back to its normal waking state.

Not to discredit Dr. Allen Hobson’s theory, he oddly is a professor of psychiatry and seems to reply much of his information on neuroscience. He also actively disagrees with Sigmund Freud theories for dream interpretations as Dr. Hobson’s theory is based on the random activation of the forebrain. Dr. Hobson disagrees with Freud because of the bases that Freud theorized that our dreams are subconscious needs from our infant pasts. Freud also mentions that we forget as well are paralyzed during our sleep in order to protect ourselves from remembering these needs. Dr. Hobson theorizes the randomness of dreams are meaningless and are based on chemical reactions as well as the interpretations of our outside influences or association called attractors (something I will go into later). Though I agree with Dr. Hobson’s theory of activation and deactivation explaining the bizarreness of our dreams, I still respect the concepts of subconscious wants and needs influencing our dreams. I tend to also believe that Dr. Hobson’s theory of activation of the forebrain is a very generalized theory and should be narrowed down.

References:

Barrett, D., & McNamara, P. (2007). The New Science of Dreaming. Praeger Publishers.
Hameroff, M. B. (Director). (2006). Dream Debate [Motion Picture].

-L

Activation-synthesis hypothesis

As I begin to write this I am extremely sleepy because of only getting around four hours of sleep. Because of this I fully understand the importance of sleep due to how I feel, but I wonder why we dream and what causes them. Some direction into these answers have been provided in some of my most recent reading, a productive contribution of text called The New Science of Dreaming. Along with the reading I have also purchased a video called Dream Debate which features Allen Hobson and Mark Solms.

In this newest post I would like to feature one of the well known and supported theories of why we dream. In later posts I will explore on other theories as well as my own dream theory. The first one is called Activation-synthesis hypothesis.

Activation-synthesis hypothesis:

The activation synthesis hypothesis was conceived because of a number of studies done by Dr. Allen Hobson and fellow scientist that were actively involved in neuroscience. The theory is based on the concept that during the phases of sleep our brains are actively involved in either activating or deactivating different parts of our brains. The activation aspect of the dreaming process is theorized as being random and experienced in the forebrain that starts this process in the pontine brainstems ascending reticular activating system (ARAS) during the REM sleep stage (Barrett & McNamara, 2007). This evidence of demodulation and activation is greatly supported with PET scans as well as Dr. Hobson’s own creation of the “Night Cap” which oddly enough does a good job in determining patents REM episodes by only measuring head and eye movements (Hameroff, 2006). Understanding that the forebrain is a large portion of the brain, it’s somewhat misleading to believe that there is only activation happening during the REM and other sleep stages that cause us to dream.

Though I somewhat agree with Dr. Hobson’s theory (which I will explain further into the post) in reality many different portions of the forebrain show evidence in PET scans of activation as well as deactivation. The amygdale for one is theorized to be highly active during REM sleep due to the anxiety as well as aggression that are produced during sleep; the amygdale plays a key role in our waking fear responses. Another key player in our dreams is the forgetfulness of our experiences, explained by the demodulation of the prefrontal Cortex (PFC) during REM. As stated by Dr. Hobson during the debate, the key components for longer term memory is the combination of serotonin and dopamine; in the absence of serotonin, nothing new can be learned. Serotonin shows evidence as to be a demodulator of REM sleep as acetylcholine is an activator. In REM sleep the dopamineic area of our forebrain remains as activated as it is during waking state. If all the above evidence is true it would make a logical explanation of why we forget dreams as we are unable to process them into our long term memory in REM sleep. In short the demodulation of the PFC containing the serotonin neurotransmitter could allow the transition from NREM and REM stages of sleep. It also would explain why we forget our dreams the majority of the time, since we realistically dream multiple times a night. The last dream of the night would be remembered for a short term (since most of us are awoken during this time) and possibly passed into our long term memory as PFC activation is back to its normal waking state.

Not to discredit Dr. Allen Hobson’s theory, he oddly is a professor of psychiatry and seems to reply much of his information on neuroscience. He also actively disagrees with Sigmund Freud theories for dream interpretations as Dr. Hobson’s theory is based on the random activation of the forebrain. Dr. Hobson disagrees with Freud because of the bases that Freud theorized that our dreams are subconscious needs from our infant pasts. Freud also mentions that we forget as well are paralyzed during our sleep in order to protect ourselves from remembering these needs. Dr. Hobson theorizes the randomness of dreams are meaningless and are based on chemical reactions as well as the interpretations of our outside influences or association called attractors (something I will go into later). Though I agree with Dr. Hobson’s theory of activation and deactivation explaining the bizarreness of our dreams, I still respect the concepts of subconscious wants and needs influencing our dreams. I tend to also believe that Dr. Hobson’s theory of activation of the forebrain is a very generalized theory and should be narrowed down.

References:

Barrett, D., & McNamara, P. (2007). The New Science of Dreaming. Praeger Publishers.
Hameroff, M. B. (Director). (2006). Dream Debate [Motion Picture].

-L

Activation-synthesis hypothesis

As I begin to write this I am extremely sleepy because of only getting around four hours of sleep. Because of this I fully understand the importance of sleep due to how I feel, but I wonder why we dream and what causes them. Some direction into these answers have been provided in some of my most recent reading, a productive contribution of text called The New Science of Dreaming. Along with the reading I have also purchased a video called Dream Debate which features Allen Hobson and Mark Solms.

In this newest post I would like to feature one of the well known and supported theories of why we dream. In later posts I will explore on other theories as well as my own dream theory. The first one is called Activation-synthesis hypothesis.

Activation-synthesis hypothesis:

The activation synthesis hypothesis was conceived because of a number of studies done by Dr. Allen Hobson and fellow scientist that were actively involved in neuroscience. The theory is based on the concept that during the phases of sleep our brains are actively involved in either activating or deactivating different parts of our brains. The activation aspect of the dreaming process is theorized as being random and experienced in the forebrain that starts this process in the pontine brainstems ascending reticular activating system (ARAS) during the REM sleep stage (Barrett & McNamara, 2007). This evidence of demodulation and activation is greatly supported with PET scans as well as Dr. Hobson’s own creation of the “Night Cap” which oddly enough does a good job in determining patents REM episodes by only measuring head and eye movements (Hameroff, 2006). Understanding that the forebrain is a large portion of the brain, it’s somewhat misleading to believe that there is only activation happening during the REM and other sleep stages that cause us to dream.

Though I somewhat agree with Dr. Hobson’s theory (which I will explain further into the post) in reality many different portions of the forebrain show evidence in PET scans of activation as well as deactivation. The amygdale for one is theorized to be highly active during REM sleep due to the anxiety as well as aggression that are produced during sleep; the amygdale plays a key role in our waking fear responses. Another key player in our dreams is the forgetfulness of our experiences, explained by the demodulation of the prefrontal Cortex (PFC) during REM. As stated by Dr. Hobson during the debate, the key components for longer term memory is the combination of serotonin and dopamine; in the absence of serotonin, nothing new can be learned. Serotonin shows evidence as to be a demodulator of REM sleep as acetylcholine is an activator. In REM sleep the dopamineic area of our forebrain remains as activated as it is during waking state. If all the above evidence is true it would make a logical explanation of why we forget dreams as we are unable to process them into our long term memory in REM sleep. In short the demodulation of the PFC containing the serotonin neurotransmitter could allow the transition from NREM and REM stages of sleep. It also would explain why we forget our dreams the majority of the time, since we realistically dream multiple times a night. The last dream of the night would be remembered for a short term (since most of us are awoken during this time) and possibly passed into our long term memory as PFC activation is back to its normal waking state.

Not to discredit Dr. Allen Hobson’s theory, he oddly is a professor of psychiatry and seems to reply much of his information on neuroscience. He also actively disagrees with Sigmund Freud theories for dream interpretations as Dr. Hobson’s theory is based on the random activation of the forebrain. Dr. Hobson disagrees with Freud because of the bases that Freud theorized that our dreams are subconscious needs from our infant pasts. Freud also mentions that we forget as well are paralyzed during our sleep in order to protect ourselves from remembering these needs. Dr. Hobson theorizes the randomness of dreams are meaningless and are based on chemical reactions as well as the interpretations of our outside influences or association called attractors (something I will go into later). Though I agree with Dr. Hobson’s theory of activation and deactivation explaining the bizarreness of our dreams, I still respect the concepts of subconscious wants and needs influencing our dreams. I tend to also believe that Dr. Hobson’s theory of activation of the forebrain is a very generalized theory and should be narrowed down.

References:

Barrett, D., & McNamara, P. (2007). The New Science of Dreaming. Praeger Publishers.
Hameroff, M. B. (Director). (2006). Dream Debate [Motion Picture].

-L